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Find here IGNOU B.Ed ES-332 Solved Assignment 2014:
Answer the following questions
Q1 Explain with examples the influence of media on learning.(250 words)
Solution: Media in today’s world plays a very important role in influencing the studies. Media being the most effective part in the technology has some vital roles to play. In today’s world almost everyone has got computers, laptops, Smart phones, tablets and many other latest technology with the help of whom people are easily connected to outside world. Internet is the main source of connection among the youths which help them connected to real world and helps them learning.
For Example Google : Today whatever information we need, we directly go to GOOGLE and get it. In today’s era we are not bound to anyone. Whatever help or query we have, we consult to media directly through internet. Thus Media do have a strong influence for the today’s generation. Media does play a vital role.
Whatever projects or assignment are given in schools or collages are completed on the basis of media only. The textbooks available in the market are so expensive that people can afford e-books online, read it topic over, change the book. That’s it. Not only help full in studies but media also helps in acquiring general knowledge about anything a person is interested in. access to internet has become so easy that anyone can get connected to it and search for, what it wants.
As the technology will improve and invention increases different method of learning will also be invented which would be better than one another. Thus settling and accepting the new ideas is the best easy and cheap way of learning.
Q2 Describe the various steps and measures you take to create inclusive/conducive learning environment in the school for your students (SC/ST, girls and special needs children). (250 words)
Solution: Create classroom norms: At the beginning of a course, create a list of rules for classroom behaviour. You can do this along with your students. A good way to begin is by first stating a few rules that you believe are important and that lay the foundation for an inclusive learning environment. For instance, basic rules such as "treat others with respect" and "listen to others and avoid pointing blame" will set a tone for how you and the students are expected to behave.
Address issues of diversity directly: As an instructor, you are in the position to model inclusion in the classroom. You can do this in a few ways. You can address issues of diversity when they come up in class discussion. For instance, if a student makes a comment that is ignorant or hurtful, use this as a time to discuss with the entire class how this comment might hurt others. You can also use course content to help students look at issues of diversity.
Use a variety of teaching methods and model inclusiveness in your teaching style: Utilizing diverse teaching methods will make the course inclusive for a variety of abilities and learning styles. Rather than just teaching through lectures, use methods such as collaborative and group activities; hands-on activities; Internet and technology based learning; fieldwork or field trips and guest speakers. Provide written materials to supplement lectures as well.
Hence the above steps can be considered important for inclusive/ conductive learning environment in the class rooms.
Q3.Explain the concept of divergent thinking. Design and develop a plan for promoting divergent thinking among your learners. (1000 words)
Solution: Divergent thinking is an approach to a situation or concept which focuses on exploring as many aspects of the concept as possible. Starting with a single idea, the divergent thinker allows his or her mind to wander off in many different directions, gathering numerous thoughts and ideas which relate to the concept. Divergent thinking can be used as a method of creative brainstorming in a wide variety of settings, ranging from the research and development department of a major company to the classroom.
With divergent thinking, people start out thinking about a single concept, and develop many solutions and approaches to the concept. This contrasts with convergent thinking, in which many ideas are brought together to a single focus, often by following a series of logical steps to arrive at this focus. Divergent thinking is often associated with creative pursuits and the humanities, which tend to encourage a more free-form method of thinking, but in fact, it can be beneficial in the sciences as well, with the ability to think in a far-reaching and erratic way being a useful skill when it comes to solving some scientific puzzles.
It is difficult to test for divergent thinking on examinations which are designed to test intelligence and mental ability. This type of thinking cannot be pinned down or categorized, because it relies heavily on the ability to generate random, disorganized thoughts in a free-flowing way, and there is no way to test for this with a conventional examination. As a result, people who are skilled at divergent thinking may not perform terribly well on intelligence tests, when they are in fact quite intelligent.
Divergent thinking exercises can help develop the mind and foster creativity. For example, students might be given a list of items and asked to think of as many possible uses as they can for each. Or, students may be presented with a problem and asked to brainstorm a number of different solutions. Divergent thinking can also be used as the basis for the development of products in addition to intellectual ideas.
For people who are used to convergent thinking, it can be difficult to explore divergent thinking. Aids such as free association exercises, free writing diaries, and so forth can help people grow accustomed to thinking in this way while allowing them to develop their thoughts. There are also numerous divergent thinking exercises available on the Internet, including exercises designed for classrooms and groups.
Strategies of Divergent Thinking:
The goal of divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time. It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. Divergent th inking typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing manner, such that the ideas are generated in a random, unorganized fashion. Following divergent thinking, the ideas and information will be organized using convergent thinking; i.e., putting the var ious ideas back together in some organized, structured way.
To begin brainstorming potential topics, it is often helpful to engage in self analysis and topic analysis.
- Ask the following questions to help brainstorm a list of potential topics.
- How do I spend my time? What are my activities during a normal day?
- What do I know about? What are my areas of expertise? What am I studying in school?
- What do I like? What are my hobbies? What are my interests?
- What bothers me? What would I like to change in my world or life?
- What are my strongest beliefs, values and philosophies?
- Topic Analysis
- Ask the following questions to help narrow and refine a broad topic into a specific, focused one. Substitute your topic for the word "something."
- How would you describe something?
- What are the causes of something?
- What are the effects of something?
- What is important about something?
- What are the smaller parts that comprise something?
- How has something changed? Why are those changes important?
- What is known and unknown about something?
- What category of ideas or objects does something belong to?
- Is something good or bad? Why?
- What suggestions or recommendations would you make about something?
- What are the different aspects of something you can think of?
Techniques to Stimulate Divergent Thinking
1. Brainstorming. Brainstorming is a technique which involves generating a list of ideas in a creative, unstructured manner. The goal of brainstorming is to generate as many ideas as possible in a short period of time. The key tool in brainstorm ing is "piggybacking," or using one idea to stimulate other ideas. During the brainstorming process, ALL ideas are recorded, and no idea is disregarded or criticized. After a long list of ideas is generated, one can go back and review the ideas to criti que their value or merit.
2. Keeping a Journal. Journals are an effective way to record ideas that one thinks of spontaneously. By carrying a journal, one can create a collection of thoughts on various subjects that later become a source book of ideas. People often have insights at unusual times and places. By keeping a journal, one can capture these ideas and use them later when developing and organizing materials in the prewriting stage.
3. Freewriting. When free-writing, a person will focus on one particular topic and write non-stop about it for a short period of time. The idea is to write down whatever comes to mind about the topic, without stopping to proofread or revise the writing. This can help generate a variety of thoughts about a topic in a short period of time, which can later be restructured or organized following some pattern of arrangement.
4. Mind or Subject Mapping. Mind or subject mapping involves putting brainstormed ideas in the form of a visual map or picture that that shows the relationships among these ideas. One starts with a central idea or topic, then draws branches off the main topic which represent different parts or aspects of the main topic. This creates a visual image or "map" of the topic which the writer can use to develop the topic further. For example, a topic may have four different branches (sub-topics), and each of those four branches may have two branches of its own (sub-topics of the sub-topic) *Note* this includes both divergent and convergent thinking.