IGNOU B.Ed ES-341 Solved Assignment January 2014

Welcome to IGNOU B.Ed ES-341 Solved Assignment January 2014 Section. All Students can find here Indira Gandhi National Open University (Ignou) Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) ES-341 Solved Assignment January 2014 online.

Assignment 1

Answer the following questions

i)Explain the dynamic nature of science with examples (250 words)

Solution:

The new Science curriculum has the 'nature of science' right up there at the top. And why? Because it's so important for people to learn, not just science facts and concepts, but also about what science is: how it's done, the tools and methods scientists use, how they communicate, its history, & how science is a part of everyday life. Science is dynamic in nature - it's not a fixed set of facts & doesn't simply represent the 'truth' about the natural world, but changes through time as new data are collected.

Darwin was alive at a time when scientists were redefining a whole range of concepts ('species', for one). Scientists are constantly coming up with new questions, new interpretations, and new opinions. And because of this, it is eventually self-correcting. A good (non-evolutionary) example here is the discovery that most stomach ulcers are caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. When this idea was first proposed, biologists laughed at it. But the scientists concerned persisted and demonstrated - by infecting themselves, among other things - that the infection/ ulcer link existed. The weight of evidence convinced the scientific community - and the scientists who made the discovery received a Nobel Prize. Biology is a quest towards understanding, one that is ever changing and one that has roots not only in the phenomena that we observe, but in the human world that shapes our concerns and questions. And still biology is the vast concept of learning and understanding concept in the field of science.

ii) Discuss critically the concept, advantages and limitation of ‘Project’ method for teaching science with illustrations (250 words)

Solution:

Project Method of Teaching Science According to an expert, a project is a problematic act which is carried out to completion in its natural and immediate settings. Another expert is of the view that a project is a whole hearted activity which is done with a specific purpose in a social environment.

Thus it can be said that a project is a special kind of experience which is outcome of a desire of the students. Therefore, teaching by this method is based upon the use of desire of the students. Project method can be best explained through the phrase learning by Living. Merits of Project Method•

As students get proper freedom to execute the project in accordance with their interest and abilities, because of which they get their psychological needs satisfied to considerable extent.

This method is not only subject centred, but due importance is being provided to the students also. Students are permitted to choose projects on their own, as a result of which they make use of their abilities to maximum possible extent.

Demerits of Project Method:

This method takes a lot of time to plan and execute a single project. As the time available with the teacher is limited in the schools, thus they find it difficult to make use of this method in their class.

It is not possible to design different projects for different topics and it is also not possible to cover all the topics or content in a single project. Thus, this method becomes impractical in nature.

iii) You being a science teacher have been given responsibility to establish or good science laboratory. Describe the outline plan and essential aspects to be considered by you to establish a good science laboratory.(1000 words)

Solution:

A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include:

  • film laboratory or darkroom
  • clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs
  • computer lab
  • crime lab used to process crime scene evidence
  • media lab
  • medical lab (involves handling of chemical compounds)
  • public health lab

In recent year’s government and private centers for innovation in learning, leadership and organization have adopted "lab" in their name to emphasize the experimental and research-oriented nature of their work.

Scientific laboratories can be found in schools and universities, in industry, in government or military facilities, and even aboard ships and spacecraft. A laboratory might offer work space for just one to more than thirty researchers depending on its size and purpose.

Characteristics of scientific laboratories:

In recent year’s government and private centers for innovation in learning, leadership and organization have adopted "lab" in their name to emphasize the experimental and research-oriented nature of their work.

Scientific laboratories can be found in schools and universities, in industry, in government or military facilities, and even aboard ships and spacecraft. A laboratory might offer work space for just one to more than thirty researchers depending on its size and purpose.

 Characteristics of scientific laboratories:

Labs used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science. A physics lab might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy lab could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist ‘s lab might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists, computers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Despite the great differences among laboratories, some features are common. The use of workbenches or countertops at which the scientist may choose to either sit or stand is a common way to ensure  comfortable working conditions for the cabinets for the storage of laboratory equipment is quite common. It is traditional for a scientist to record an experiment's progress in a laboratory notebook, but modern labs almost always contain at least one computer workstation for data collection and analysis.

Labs used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science. A physics lab might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy lab could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist ‘s lab might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists, computers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Despite the great differences among laboratories, some features are common. The use of workbenches or countertops at which the scientist may choose to either sit or stand is a common way to ensure comfortable working conditions for the cabinets for the storage of laboratory equipment is quite common. It is traditional for a scientist to record an experiment's progress in a laboratory notebook, but modern labs almost always contain at least one computer workstation for data collection and analysis.

Lab safety:

In some laboratories, the conditions are no more dangerous than in any other room. In many labs, though, hazards are present. Laboratory hazards are as varied as the subjects of study in laboratories, and might include poisons; infectious agents; flammable, explosive, or radioactive materials; moving machinery; extreme temperatures; lasers, strong magnetic fields or high voltage. In laboratories where dangerous conditions might exist, safety precautions are important. Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, and safety equipment is used to protect the lab user from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, recognizing the unique characteristics of the laboratory workplace, have tailored a standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. This standard is often referred to as the "Laboratory Standard". Under this standard, a laboratory is required to produce a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) which addresses the specific hazards found in its location, and its approach to them.

In determining the proper Chemical Hygiene Plan for a particular business or laboratory, it is necessary to understand the requirements of the standard, evaluation of the current safety, health and environmental practices and assessment of the hazards. The CHP must be reviewed annually. Many schools and businesses employ safety, health, and environmental specialists, such as a Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) to develop, manage, and evaluate their CHP. Additionally, third party review is also used to provide an objective "outside view" which provides a fresh look at areas and problems that may be taken for granted or overlooked due to habit. Inspections and audits like also are conducted on a regular basis to assess hazards due to chemical handling and storage, electrical equipment, biohazards, hazardous waste management, housekeeping and emergency preparedness, radiation safety, ventilation as well as respiratory testing and indoor air quality. An important element of such audits is the review of regulatory compliance and the training of individuals who have access to and/or work in the laboratory. Training is critical to the ongoing safe operation of the laboratory facility. Educators, staff and management must be engaged in working to reduce the likelihood of accidents, injuries and potential litigation. Efforts are made to ensure laboratory safety videos are both relevant and engaging.

Outline plan of laboratory:

As outlined in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Code of Federal Regulations 29CFR 1910.1450, a Chemical Hygiene Plan must be developed for all laboratories that use hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this plan is to define work practices and procedures to ensure that all laboratory occupants are protected from any health hazards associated with the use of hazardous chemicals.

“Hazardous chemical” means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence, based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles, that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals that are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. Each laboratory, principal investigator, or department must develop a Chemical Hygiene Plan. RiceUniversity’s Safety Policies and Procedures manual may be included as part of the plan, but may not be used in place of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.

The following outline is intended to assist the laboratory, principal investigator, or department in plan development. Each plan must be updated annually or as procedures or personnel change. Attached is an outline which can be used for a Chemical Hygiene plan.  Thus it is necessary to see and complete all the norms and safety measures must be taken to have a well established and equipped lab in the school which can avoid accidents and uncertainties. Though it cannot fully assure you of no accidents but it can reduce the risk of the same.

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thn'x for share assignment it's very useful....

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